The Impact of Globalization on Inequality

Since the European discoveries, several waves of globalization have shaped the way we live today. The most recent one started around the 80s/90s of the previous century and was pushed by several circumstances. First of all, the economic reforms implemented in China around that time by Deng Xiaoping, who ruled the country as paramount leader* between 1978 and 1992 and the fall of the USSR in 1991 brought economic development and openness to vast territories, changing its interaction with the rest of the world. In addition to these two events, the improvements in communication and transportation technologies were key aspects that enabled all the process, boosting global trade and movement of capital between countries. For instance, according to the World Bank, exports of goods and services grew from US$4.1 trillion in 1980, to US$23 trillion in 2015, at constant on 2010 prices

Since the beginning of the process until now, globalization is said to have taken a lot of people out of poverty due to those infusions of foreign capital and technology in less privileged areas of the globe, bringing them economic development and spreading prosperity. Stil according to the World Bank, the global population living with less than US$1.90 per day in this condition decreased from 36% in 1990 to 10% in 2015. The two countries that most contributed to this outcome were China, where this indicator fell from around 66% to 1% in the same time-frame; and India, where poverty affected almost 49% of the population in 1987, shrunk to 21.2% in 2011. Undoubtfully, this is clearly positive and a major advance towards the United Nations’ sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty.

However, even though poverty has shrunk at a global level, the fact is that the increasing wealth that is created and the benefits of globalization are said not to be distributed fairly.

Global real income growth (1988-2008)

Source: Equitymaster

Source: Equitymaster

This chart was elaborated by Branko Milanovic, an economist recognized for his work and research in inequality and income distribution, and depicts the variation in real income according to each percentile of the global income distribution between 1988 and 2008. It can be clearly seen that, during this time frame, the ones who saw their income increase the most was the population living in emerging countries and also the richest citizens of the world. On the other hand, the middle classes of developed countries and the extremely poor virtually remained the same, with some even getting worse off. 

When looking for answers that may explain why this has happened, the novelties brought by this recent wave of globalization should be taken into consideration. The reductions in transportation costs and trade barriers created an atmosphere of incentives for capital owners to move the production segment of the supply chain from developed countries to others with better cost advantages, mainly regarding labor, in order to pursue competitiveness. Therefore, these new opportunities have benefited the global elite, as well as the population of where these jobs were created. On the other hand, this has led developed countries to experience major job losses and its working class to see their real wages/income stagnated overtime, and even decreased.

Even though globalization may have contributed for more inclusiveness and less poverty at a global level, smoothing differences between the richer and the poorer countries, the fact is that, when considering the internal situation of each nation, it may be a different story. 

 

Distribution of pre-tax national Distribution of pre-tax national income in the United States income in China

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Source: World Inequality Database

Source: World Inequality Database

These graphs clearly show that inequality in the United States as well as in China increased. In both countries, independently of whether real incomes increased or not, the share of national income received by the bottom 50 percent of the population fell, while the top 10 percent saw their share of income increase. This being said, it is quite clear that inequality should be a priority for national governments.


*Paramount leader: informal term for the most prominent political leader in the People’s Republic of China, not necessarily involving an official position.

 

Sources: Forbes, The World Bank Data, Equitymaster, World Inequality Database


Corona, an Economic Virus

As it is noticeable, we have just entered a downturn cycle in the economy. The uncertainty on the markets, the general panic, sudden decrease in consumption, production and investment are primary presages of economic dark times, and it is up to all of us to prepare for the upcoming storm. The next months won’t be easy and irreversible economic losses have already contributed to an approaching feasible collapse in the global economy.

The coronavirus isn´t only responsible for contaminating our health, this contagious virus has and will certainly play a big role in the future of worldwide economies.

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EU’s real GDP was expected to grow around 1,4% in 2020, after the hit of the pandemic COVID-19 EU´s output may fall to 0% or even reach a negative growth. Even the Chinese economy, which has been continuously growing in the past decades, was anticipated to grow around 2% more than what it will predictably grow after the spread of the virus and the USA’s real GDP may grow less 1% than previously expected. Overall global GDP growth may fall from 2.5% to between 2% and -1.5%, depending if there is a quick recovery on the economy or a global slowdown.


All industries in the global economy are being contaminated by the virus and the duration of the predicted recovery fluctuates, depending on the economic sector.

As expected, tourism will take the longest time to recover.It is foreseen that it will only restart in the 4th quarter of 2020 (in October), imposing a threat for various countries. A good example is Portugal, whose GDP is highly dependent on the industry, having represented 14,6% of the portuguese GDP in 2018. On the other hand, consumer electronics and consumer products are the sectors that are anticipated to have the fastest economic recovery. Their  global downturn reversal is estimated to be in the 2nd quarter of 2020 (April).

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Even though there will certainly be an economic global slowdown in the economy many specialists argue that the economic incidence of covid-19 is merely conjunctural. Since it´s repercussions aren’t enrooted in the economy, a severe recession isn’t bound to happen, “markets will recover”.

If we reflect on it, an appearance of the epidemic coronavirus will pose as a temporary shock in the economy and it is one that is far from being neglected. 

Let us take into consideration the 08 financial crisis, a great recession derived from an inundation of continuous bank runs, lack of credit crunch and condensed investment in toxic assets. Within the recession downtimes there was a high level of leverage in the financial market which turned rather more difficult the monetary response of the central banks. Many even argue that the prolonged and inaccurate response of Central Banks took a big part in the colossal breakdown of the economy.

 In the feasible upcoming coronavirus crisis, governments and central banks are already concerned with how to prepare for it, how to mitigate the alarming consequences this global pandemic seems to be able to induce in the economy, and how to aim for a “surely recovery”.

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It is definitely extremely hard to predict the right measures to fight such an erratic enemy, thankfully many allies have already started to plan ahead.


Central banks are taking out the big guns. The Fed just announced this last Sunday, March 15, 2020 , that it will lower interest rates to 0%, the first time since the financial crisis of 08, and that it will buy at least $700 billion in government and mortgage-related bonds.The drastic low interest rates are expected to remain until the US economy recovers from the coronavirus economic slowdown.

The ECB is also expanding money supply in the economy, buying financial assets with newly created money. However, their fixed interest rates have been on negative territory since 11 of june of 2014, therefore the central bank has no room to lower interest rates.

It becomes clear that European government’s fiscal policy will play a big role in safeguarding the economies. For the approaching months it will definitely be crucial that assertive fiscal policies are created, in order to safeguard employment and ensure direct credit to companies, with the intent that solvency and liquidity issues are avoided.

Acknowledging that the coronavirus outbreak is an exogenous temporary shock in the economy and that global entities are already taking measures to safeguard its repercussions, independently if the recovery process may elongate, there is hope that our economy won’t suffer an irreversible collapse and fall into the next big recession. Nonetheless, we should be aware that an economic downturn is advancing,  it is time for governments to strengthen their weapons and get ready for the shooting.

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Sources:

  • European Commission, McKinsey & Company, Washington post, BBC news, INE, NY Times, Economic Times, European Central Bank- Euro system

Does a flat tax on personal income make sense?

Throughout history, disparities about the definition of social justice, across regions, led countries to adopt different income-tax systems (1). Despite being the most accepted, the progressive way of taxes has been increasingly questioned by academics and political leaders, arguing that a flat-tax system would be a better fit for countries regarding fairness and economic dynamics.

What distinguishes a flat rate from a progressive rate?

Simply put, a flat income-tax system applies the same income-tax rate to all taxpayers, regardless of their income level. Contrarily, a progressive system increases the rate as the income level increases, where the income range can vary greatly, depending on the country.

On the one hand, those who defend the first method argue that it is unfair to charge higher-income individuals a greater tax rate. The rationale behind this position is that they should not be penalized for adding more value to the economy. On the other hand, supporters of the progressive system believe that income distribution before taxes is not fair, i.e., earnings do not necessarily match economic contribution. Furthermore, wealthier households are considered to have the moral duty to aid those struggling. In their view, adjustments are needed and desirable.

Historically, the progressive system has been prevailing in most developed Western countries. In the USA, for instance, only 9 states (Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Utah) out of 50 have a flat income-tax. In turn, only 8 of the 36 OECD member countries currently have a somewhat flat system (Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Poland and Sweden) (2).

In order to accurately address the origins and the main effects of a flat-tax system, some of the referred countries will be used as case-studies in this article.

What caused some countries to adopt a flat-tax system?

It is not a coincidence that most European countries which adopted a flat-tax system were once part of a bigger state. Estonia, for instance, which is perhaps the successful case in the adoption of a flat-tax (1994), was part of the USSR until its breakup in 1991, as well as Latvia (1994), Lithuania (1995) and Georgia (2005). In turn, Serbia and Montenegro, which adopted a flat tax in 2003 and 2007, respectively, are former members of Yugoslavia.

What these countries have in common is the lack of openness of their economies prior to their independence, as seen in the graph. Nowadays, approximately thirty years after the breakup of their previous federations, countries like Estonia and Serbia have shown an intensive internationalization process. Indeed, economic history tells us that global trade increases the welfare of nations. Therefore, it seems logical that former USSR and Yugoslavia members would aim at opening their economies so that they could thrive and catch up with Central and Western European more developed states.

Data source: The Global Economy

Data source: The Global Economy

In a report for The Heritage Foundation, Mart Laar, former liberal-conservative Prime Minister of Estonia (1992-1994; 1999-2002), explained that, when the USSR broke up and the country conquered its independence, the Russian ruble no longer had any value, Estonian industrial production declined by more than 30%, real wages fell by 45%, while inflation was running at more than 1000%. GDP per capita in the country was at $2,000, compared to the $14,370 attained by the Finnish neighbours. This Baltic country was totally devastated, after being pushed to the limit by Moscow, hence lacking urgent and impactful policies to invert its economic path.

Among a set of important measures to stabilize and boost the economy such as the introduction of an own currency (the kroon) which was pegged to the German mark, and balanced Government budgets, openness to global markets also played a significant role by fostering competition and attracting direct foreign investment. Nonetheless, the decisive move «to achieve a lasting breakthrough in Estonia’s development» would be the flat tax.

In the words of Laar, it was all about providing the right incentives to people:

“when people who had started companies realized that the tax system punished success, their enthusiasm to persevere and determine their own future declined considerably”

— Laar

Similarly, in Lithuania and Latvia, nations that share many characteristics with Estonia (these three would become known as Baltic Tigers), the flat tax was introduced to improve the economic outlook after Soviet ruling. Besides, they had to compete with Estonia for foreign investment, for which fiscal policy was a powerful tool. On the other hand, in Russia and Ukraine, the flat-tax was introduced mainly to incentivize higher-income households not to evade their taxes.

How does flat taxation impact economies and societies?

Despite all the positive results political leaders aimed at achieving with a flat-tax system, do/did they really happen? Looking at tax revenue, GDP per capita, income reporting and tax compliance and Gini Index, we can take some conclusions.

Regarding tax revenue, the year immediately after Russia changed from progressive (12%, 20% and 30% rates) to flat taxation (13% in 2001), personal income-tax revenues increased 26% in real terms and 2% as a percentage of GDP, a working paper of the IMF from 2005 concluded. In the case of all Baltic Tigers, Deena Greenberg, despite finding out in the paper The Flat Tax: An Examination of the Baltic States that tax revenue increased after the adoption of a flat tax, could not conclude that both were linked, leaving space for ambiguity as for the effect of flat taxation on personal income-tax revenue. Nevertheless, the fact that these countries decreased their tax rate after some years raises doubts on the effectiveness of this method.

Data source: Taylor & Francis Online

Data source: Taylor & Francis Online

Analysing the evolution of real GDP per capita of some European countries with flat taxation, there is a clear trend: all of them grow significantly in the first years after its introduction, but then growth rates slow down. However, this has more to do with their historical precedents and consequent policies (macro stabilization, property reforms, openness to trade) than with the adoption of the flat tax itself. They happened simultaneously, which may induce misleading conclusions. So, it doesn’t seem to be enough evidence that GDP per capita improvements in these countries over time are due to flat taxation.

Data source: AMECO

Data source: AMECO

In terms of income reporting and tax compliance, it is not clear that a flat tax improves the standards, as the study ‘Flattening’ tax evasion? (2019) concludes by analysing a set of transition European countries. The already referred working paper from the IMF (2005), though, points out that tax compliance in Russia increased after the introduction of a flat tax. Therefore, despite not being totally clear, we could admit some positive impact of a flat tax in tax compliance, especially in less developed countries, in which standards are low.

From an inequality point of view, the Gini Index gives us an accurate insight. The higher the index, the higher the inequality. In this regard, findings are that flat taxation is positively correlated with income inequality, as the following table shows.

Data source: World Bank

Data source: World Bank

All in all, income inequality ends up being a determinant when it comes to deciding which taxation system to use. Despite being correlated with economic improvements, there is no clear evidence that flat taxation plays a role in them. The fact that Slovakia (2013) and Latvia (2018) have recently abandoned their flat systems in favour of the progressive method should be a matter of reflection. Even though the social justice argument is debatable, the economic side does not seem to support flat-tax admirers.


(1) For the sake of this article, only personal income was considered.

(2) Although only Estonia has a perfectly flat tax system, the remaining countries are included in the list either because they consider very few income ranges or because higher tax rates are charged only to abnormally wealthy individuals.


Sources:

AMECO, Deena Greenberg, European Central Bank, European Commission, Global Tax News, International Monetary Fund, LSE Blogs, ProPublica, Taylor and Francis Online, The Balance, The Global Economy, The Heritage Foundation, The Slovak Spectator, Verena Fritz, World Bank

What lies behind Singapore’s economic success?

On the tip of the Malaysian Peninsula, lies a string of islands that sit on the cross-roads of one of the most important choke points in international trade, through which more than 750 billion dollars-worth of trade pass yearly. However, as astounding as this tropical wonderland may seem, it is also a dangerous place. To the north looms the oil-rich Malaysia; to the south, the demographic behemoth of Indonesia. Even further north, lies the great dragon of the People’s Republic of China. In the midst of this blessed location, yet where so many powers intersect, is Singapore. How was this tiny city-state, of just around 5.8 million people, able to succeed in becoming one of the richest countries in the world and a beacon of stability in the region?

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In order to understand the path that led to Singapore’s success, we first have to go back to its foundation. Its strategic geographic position for trade made it ideal for the British to found a colony in 1819. However, the location is not the sole reason behind its success. Afterall, many countries such as Thailand or Indonesia also benefit from a similar position, yet they were not able to follow such a successful path. The fact that Singapore belonged to the British Empire contributed to develop it into an important hub for connections between the colonies of the far east and Europe. Nonetheless, when the country became independent from Malaysia in 1965, it was considered to be far behind the so-called industrialized world.


Lee Kuan Yew

Lee Kuan Yew

Much of the success of Singapore is owed to one man: Lee Kuan Yew, a British-educated from the Singaporean-Chinese community. Lee is considered by many, such as Robert Kaplan (an influential geo-strategist), to have been an enlightened despot. This is because he ruled with a somewhat authoritarian-like style, but largely assured the rights and liberties of his citizens. Moreover, he was the mastermind behind Singapore’s strategy to foment foreign direct investment and open the economy to globalization, a very innovative idea for its time. Adding to the influx of foreign capital, was the heavy involvement of a large state in the economy. In its early days, Singapore had been plagued by a chronic housing shortage and a lack of access to education, leading the state to prioritise the building of public housing and investing in a good schooling system. This led Singapore to become a very attractive place for investors, as it was largely seen to possess a more orderly society than its neighbours.

This was the key for Singapore’s success: strong institutions that provided for the assurance of the rule of law.

These institutions give investors the confidence to make long term investments, since they do not need to worry about a sudden regime change or an oppressive and corrupt elite. All these factors combined provided for great stability, which soon paid off.


By the late 1970s and early 80s, Singapore was a manufacturing giant in South East Asia, becoming one of the first countries to become industrialized along with the other 3 “Asian Tigers”, in what was largely a rural Asia. These “Tigers” were characterized by experiencing rapid economic growth based on manufacturing. In the case of Singapore, this manufacturing boom was explained by the shipyard industry that created synergies with its important trade port and electronics manufacturing. Singapore was once the largest producer of hard disc drives.

Singapure Shipyard Industry

Singapure Shipyard Industry

However, increased competition from its neighbouring countries in terms of labour costs in the 90s largely caused this sector’s downfall, which meant Singapore was forced to change its economic backbone. An effort in which the country was arguably even more successful, since its rule of law, with the addition of tax and regulatory incentives, made it ideal for the establishment of financial services. Big banks, consultancy firms and insurance providers swiftly moved to the city that quickly became a hub for the service industry, capable of supplying the whole surrounding region.


Eco Building in Singapore

Eco Building in Singapore

Singapore is now mainly driven by the service sector, due to consistently being ranked as one of the easiest countries to do business in, and having a highly qualified workforce, a product of its strong education system.

It can even be argued that Singapore is trying to become an Asian Switzerland, as it has implemented policies that increase bank account secrecy, a move that could mean another influx of capital into the city-state.

Besides this, owing to the high concentration of capital and qualified workforce, the country invested more than a billion dollars in start-ups, meaning it is keeping up with its innovative agenda.


All these economic strategies have made Singapore one of the richest states, averaging a GDP per capita of 57,713 dollars.  Nonetheless, it is still a somewhat unequal country as well, ranking behind countries such as the UK and Japan in the Gini index, but still in a better position than the US. The city is also one of the most expensive places in which to own a car, because of government quotas and taxes that aim at reducing traffic congestion and CO2 emissions, while simultaneously incentivising public transportation.

In conclusion, Singapore is a country that managed to overcome a difficult neighbourhood, surrounded by hostile players, and a lack of important natural resources. It is an example of a country that was able to successfully manage its strengths in order to maximize of its economic potential. But also, one that was based on an orderly society that became a beacon of stability in a tumultuous region.  This order and rule of law was only possible due to a strong government headed by a highly competent individual, and the simple fact that it had a small population concentrated on a tiny piece of land that made it very manageable.


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The Russian Way of Taxes

…and the future of tax collection worldwide

Russia’s Federal Tax Service, by the hand of the agency’s executive Mikhail Mishustin, has revolutionized the tax administration and developed a technology that will presumably be the future of tax collection worldwide. It consists in a digital and real-time system, which allows Russian officials to receive the data regarding every registered transaction that occurred in the country within 90 seconds after it took place.

The phenomena of ageing population is pressuring governments around the globe, as it is substantially enlarging the expenses with healthcare, social care and pensions. Alongside, the major tech enterprises have been discovering the way of shifting profits around the world and avoiding corporate taxes. In order to tackle these issues and raise funds to face increasing expenses and decreasing revenues in the sector of direct taxes, the Russians have decided to bet in the collection of indirect taxes, mainly in VAT.

Value Added Tax, VAT, is a broad consumption-based tax assessed on the value added to goods and services. This tax is now present in more than 165 countries and represents approximately 20 per cent of all global tax revenues per year.

But, in two main areas, VAT is subject of fraud: firstly, some traders don´t pay the taxes they owe on their sales and go missing, leaving authorities without collecting what legally belongs to them; secondly, customers collude with sellers to buy goods and services without receipt, with the purpose of avoiding VAT being charged to the final consumer.


Mikhail Mishustin

Mikhail Mishustin

To overcome fraud, or at least its majority, and prevent tax evasion and corruption, Russia developed and establish cutting-edge technology. Every retailer had to buy a new cash register, linked securely to the Federal Tax Service’s data centers, and was obliged to register every single transaction. The technology, through the use of Artificial Intelligence, is able to find patterns and spot businesses’ suspicious activity, for example if companies are registering less sales than expected because they are making cash transactions off the record, and even monitor the tax officials and their collection rates to detect corruption. This system also enables the government to control the number of sales and the prices of goods and services and provides national statistics, being inflation one of the most important.

However, there is still the wish to extend the system to the informal economy. Individuals just have to sign up to a smartphone app and what they owe will automatically be deducted from their bank accounts. Tax officials are, of course, relying in the fact that most people want to be clean and don´t want to get in trouble with the government. Even though “The Russian way of taxes” has all the advantages mentioned above, it is actually more directed to shopkeepers than to oligarchs, as corruption is still quite present in Russia’s society. Yet, this policy helped raising revenues significantly and also helped cleaning the system.

The leader of the global tax consulting at EY, Chris Sanger, says: “The benefits of technology for tax authorities in indirect taxes may well overweight the problems it brings in the direct tax system”.

Like Russia, there were many other countries that adopted the real-time data in tax collection, with the intention of reducing tax evasion and corruption. Portugal was one of those countries, an early starter. The shopkeepers’ cash registers are connected to the tax authorities’ systems too, but Portugal added other incentives. If consumers add their personal tax number to the electronic receipt, they can get a 15 per cent deduction on the VAT paid from their annual income tax assessment as well as becoming eligible to win a monthly lottery, which price is usually a brand-new luxury car. Through this incentive strategy, consumers are more likely to pay VAT and so ensure that retailers do the same.


Chris Sanger

Chris Sanger


Although many consider this is the future of tax collection worldwide, others believe that this will never be possible to implement in more mature democracies, due to the principles of privacy and data protection. The public is quite skeptical to accepted immensely intrusive state technology. OECD is trying to draw core standards at least for its state-members, aiming at securing data and preventing it from being misused.

For reflection purposes, it is feasible to leave the question: Will people actually be worried about their privacy and their personal information or, in another way, are they worthy to claim these rights when they share their private lives with the big tech companies?

Misleading Business Improvement

A 15% growth from June 2018 to June 2019 may seem like a great deal for any food retail chain. At least if you are not in Angola, where inflation is a big component of the economy. Although this indicator is now around 17%, it reached a peak of 42%, between 2016 and 2018, according to Trading Economics.

When compared to the Euro, the Kwanza (Angola’s currency) depreciated almost 40% in relation to the previous year. In 2018, one euro bought 290 Qwanzas, whereas nowadays it buys around 395.

Given this, a 15% rise in nominal terms does not reflect an excellent real growth, which may in fact even be negative.

Bearing this in mind, are these growth rates in Angola that bad? 


The Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War

To answer this question correctly, one has to travel back in time. Angola was highly affected by two main wars: the war for independence from Portugal in the 1960s and 1970s, and the civil war, which ended in 2002. During almost four decades of political instability, Angola’s economy was stagnated, remaining one of the poorest countries in the world, despite its abundance in natural resources.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the government reformed and improved social and political institutions and Angola’s economy started growing fast. Although with high inequality and corruption, its GDP grew exponentially, and Angola became one of the fastest growing countries in the world. However, its prosperity depended strongly on oil exports revenues, which are very vulnerable to changes in the international oil prices.

During the European financial crisis, developed countries slowed down their demand for petroleum. Coincidentally, during that phase, new oil sources were discovered, so its supply increased without any international entity watching over. For these two reasons, the price of a barrel of crude in the international market decreased abruptly and Angola’s oil export revenues halved.

The overall balance of the country started decreasing a lot in 2012 and became negative in 2013, which means that Angola was losing reserves and borrowing from the rest of the world. This is translated into a negative current account and a surplus in the financial account.

Consequently, since the end of 2014, the country is experiencing a recession, dragging thousands of businesses into bankruptcy.


On the one hand, during a crisis, people who lived with less than 1 dollar per day do not lose a lot of purchasing power, because they already had none. Moreover, the richest 20% who, in this country, hold 50% of the income, do not struggle. As a matter of fact, their fortunes usually increase.

However, on the other hand, the picture is a little bit different for the middle class. As Angola used to be a Portuguese colony, this class is made up mostly by Portuguese people inhabiting there, who are the ones balancing the economy. When the crisis hit its peak, around 200 000 expatriates returned home, decreasing Angola’s domestic product. In 2015, around 60 thousand work posts were extinguished, the majority being related to construction and oil exploration. It represented not only a great loss to the government (less money earned in visas, taxes…), but also to the private sector (less money spent in leisure, shopping, rents…).

One cannot stress enough this last one, since a one-bedroom apartment rent was around 5 000 dollars per month and the resident had to pay for the entire year in January.


Moreover, the informal sector constitutes a huge part of Angola’s economy. This is usually closely tied with poverty, yet this sector did not shrink during the economic upturn in the first decade of the century. Actually, this sector became more productive and started to cover various activities: from water supply to transportation. Some developing countries are so used to these kinds of markets, that a sales boost is highly noticeable when the country improves. For the past few years, during the oil exportation crisis, the informal sector remained. These are bad news for the retail business, since food and beverages are easy products to trade informally. In 2018, 80% of existing soft drinks were sold in these markets. 

To sum up, it is accurate to argue that reaching the growth rates aforesaid is pretty good.


Porto de Luanda

Porto de Luanda

This is true, especially when almost all of the food sold in formal markets in Angola is imported and travels by sea for 3 long months, so companies have to predict the client’s necessities well in advance.

When there is a problem with transportation, supermarkets simply run out of stock and rely on the sales of non-perishable products. This would not be an issue if the government made serious inroads against corruption, providing local producers with financial support, given that the country is known for its fertile soils and rich raw materials.

Will this picture change? 

According to the Corruption Perceptions Index 2018, created by Transparency International, an organization dedicated only to public sector corruption, Angola is one of the worst countries regarding this matter. The country assumes place number 165 out of 180, where number 1 is the cleanest country (Denmark) and 180 is the most corrupt one (Somalia). The failure to control this problem is affecting all Angolan taxpayers, including businesses.

Boosting sales, even in nominal terms, is an excellent achievement in a country where the majority of the population lives in one of the following two scenarios:

either they do not have a roof to sleep under or they travel on a private airplane to spend their money elsewhere.


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Sources:

  • Trading Economics

  • World Bank

  • Transparency International

Wealth: to tax or not to tax?

There has been a topic marking all the debates throughout America in the past few weeks: the proposals of two Democratic candidates, Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders, regarding a tax on wealth. Their proposals, coupled with all the recent articles and book releases about rising inequality all across the world, has been the hot topic on top of the table (better said, on top of the House).


Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren

Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren

A tax on wealth consists of a tax on the net wealth a person holds – that is, their assets minus their debts. Assets may include, for instance, bank deposits, real estate, financial securities, personal trusts, jewellery, or even a Picasso Painting. However, according to Bernie Sanders’ proposal, this tax would only be applied to people with a net worth value above $32 million, whereas candidate Warren would impose a tax on wealth only for values above $50 million.

They believe this is a much-needed source of revenue in order to ensure public health care for every American citizen. 


There have been many countries adopting similar forms of wealth taxes. However, according to records, most of these countries have already dampened its usage. Only three out of the twelve European governments that implemented this tax in the 1990s continue relying on its revenues.

Furthermore, the numbers regarding tax revenue are not encouraging. The country that collects the most revenue from a tax on wealth is Switzerland, where its wealth tax revenue amounts to 3.1% of GDP. The other two countries, Norway and Spain, show really modest values, ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 percent of GDP.

The reasons provided by these countries are based on the fact that it is too costly to implement such a tax policy, due to the difficulty in assessing and evaluating the stock of assets each person owns, from personal effects and durable goods to future pension rights. Besides this, the OECD found clear evidence of the tax evasion and avoidance that is expected following the implementation of such policy.


Additionally, studies based on past experiences showed that, as this tax is calculated based on the difference between assets and debt, people were encouraged to borrow and invest in exempted assets and in assets that were hard for the government to identify. Farms and small businesses, artwork and antiques, forests and non-profit organizations are all examples of assets exempted from a tax on wealth.

The concerns of Senator Warren and other policymakers regard the ‘concentration’ of wealth in a small number of individuals. But the truth is that their wealth is mainly dispersed across the economy in productive business assets and, looking just at billionaires, only 2 percent of their wealth is accounted for by their homes and personal assets, such as cars, jewellery, and artwork.



Greg Mankiw

Greg Mankiw

Economist Greg Mankiw suggested a model in which there were only capitalists and workers. His findings showed that people should support taxes on wages, but not on capital. The reason is that the supply of capital is elastic or responsive to taxation – not entirely realistic -, such that setting a tax equal to zero would generate increased savings and boost investment. Consequently, worker productivity and wages would rise and, in the long run, the after-tax wages of workers would be higher under this policy rather than under a policy of imposing taxes on capital. From an average workers’ point of view, it is beneficial for the wealthy to maximize their savings and reduce consumption.


Still, the question remains:

How can we have a tax system that does not penalize beneficial wealth accumulation but also distributes the tax burden equitably? How do we ensure that the rich pay a fair share of taxes while simultaneously not discouraging savings? 

Many have been the countries and cities, from Chile to Lebanon, appealing and begging for a more equal treatment and more egalitarian policies from their governments. For the sake of social harmony, tackling this issue is as urgent as it is to reach a consensus regarding climate change policies. However, wealth taxes may not be the right way to achieve the so-called general equilibrium.


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Sources:

  • Business Insider

  • National Public Radio

  • CATO Institute

China’s Grand Strategy: The Belt and Road Initiative

The acute awareness of a new world being knitted together has helped prompt plans for the future that will capitalise on and accelerate the changing patterns of economic and political power. Chief among these is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), President Xi’s signature economic and foreign policy, which uses the ancient Silk Roads and their success as a matrix for Chinese long-term plans for the future.

Since the project was announced in 2013, nearly $8 trillion have been promised to infrastructure investments, mainly in the form of loans to around 1,000 projects in 65 countries.

Some believe that the amount of money that will be ploughed into China’s neighbours and countries that are part of the BRI over sea – Maritime Silk Road – and land – Silk Road Economic Belt – will eventually multiply several times over to create an interlinked world of train lines, highways, deep water ports and airports that will enable trade links to grow even faster and stronger. In the meantime, the IMF issued a warning, in 2017, regarding the credit bubble, stating that the debt levels were not so much of a concern but rather a real danger.

China’s BRI was decided when the new leadership faced the combined pressure of the economic slowdown, US pivot to Asia and the deterioration of the relations with neighbouring countries after the 2008 Global Financial Crisis.

The continental economic belt focuses on the connectivity between China and Europe through Central Asia, and also between China, the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean through Central and Western Asia. In addition, the maritime road aims to link China’s seaports to the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and Europe.


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The BRI’s five major goals are claimed to be: promoting policy coordination, facilitating connectivity, unlimited trade, financial integration and people-to-people bonds. The sectors in which the BRI has focused more time and effort are oil and gas, diversified industrial products and financial services, as shown in the chart below.


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Dealing with the ‘new normal’

Serious challenges to the Chinese economy account for the most important drivers of the BRI. After the Global Financial Crisis and experiencing high-speed growth, the Chinese economy has slowed down since 2012 and entered the state of a ‘new normal’. China’s engine is cooling down, yet it continues to rack up one of the fastest rates of economic growth in the world. Given its enormous scale, this translates into substantial additions in absolute terms. In 2019, China added the equivalent of the entire Australian economy to its GDP. Nevertheless, the efficacy of China’s government stimulus has been waning.

Each renminbi of economic stimulus that the government pumped into the economy delivered less in actual GDP growth than in the past. The rise in ICOR (Incremental Capital-Output Ratio) – the amount of money the government needs to put in to yield a unit of growth – meant that economic stimulus was, in other words, getting more expensive.

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Two major problems that the Chinese economy carries, which can be partially solved by the trade generated from the BRI, are overcapacity and excessive foreign exchange reserves.

The problem of overcapacity is not only in labour-intensive traditional industries, such as steel and cement sectors, but also in the so-called high value-added emerging industries, including new energy sectors. Overcapacity has kept the growth rate down, which makes it urgent to find alternative oversea markets.

Excessive foreign exchange reserves were mostly caused by the large-scale stimulus package, as high as $586 billion, and further imbalance of the economy. The accumulation of excessive foreign reserves reflects worsening external imbalance, though it is also an upside factor to an emerging economy facing the risks of global adjustment. China’s foreign exchange reserve has rapidly increased to $4 trillion in recent years and about $1.4 trillion was invested in the purchase of US treasury bonds. Undoubtedly, this development is not sustainable and China’s economic leaders face severe political and economic pressure in tackling this issue.

In order to increase efficiency, China needs to find more exits for such large amounts of resources.

Studies made by Think Tanks such as the Asian Development Bank have shown that there is huge demand for infrastructure in Asian developing economies which is not largely met with existing multilateral and regional development financing institutions. It is believed that there is huge space for mutual cooperation between China and Asian economies on infrastructure investment, which is the reason why so many Asian developing countries have signed up for the two Chinese initiatives.


Debt vulnerability in BRI countries

As anticipated, BRI spans at least 65 countries with an announced investment as high as $8 trillion for a vast network of transportation, energy and telecommunications infrastructure connecting Europe, Africa and Asia. It is an infrastructure financing initiative for a large part of the global economy that will also serve key economic, foreign policy, and security objectives for the Chinese government.

Yet, important questions arise on sustainably financing the initiative within BRI countries and how the Chinese government will position itself on debt sustainability. Infrastructure financing, which often entails lending to sovereigns or the use of a sovereign guarantee, can create challenges for sovereign debt sustainability. When the creditor itself is a sovereign, or has official ties to a sovereign as China’s policy banks do, these challenges often affect the bilateral relationships between the two governments.

Even though China’s plan sounds like a brilliant idea to fix its own problems, it is not all sunshine and rainbows. There is a concern that debt problems will create an unfavourable degree of dependency on China as a creditor. Increasing debt, and China’s role in managing bilateral debt problems has already exacerbated internal and bilateral tensions in some BRI countries, such as Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Washington-based Center for Global Development raised serious concerns about 8 nations receiving BRI financing, namely Pakistan, Tajikistan, Maldives, Laos, Mongolia, Montenegro, Djibouti and Kyrgyzstan. These nations’ mounting debt to China puts their economies at risk of potential widespread default.

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In Sri Lanka, citizens have regularly clashed with police over a new industrial zone surrounding Hambantota Port. Many argue that Chinese financing has led to a debt trap in Sri Lanka where the Hambantota Port project performed poorly once it was operationalised, operating at a loss. Consequently, on December 2017, the Sri Lanka Ports Authority renegotiated a deal with China Merchant Port Holdings (CM Ports), where CM Ports injected $1.1 billion for an 85% stake and a 99-year lease.


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In Pakistan, Chinese officials openly appealed to opposition politicians to embrace the construction of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which is BRI’s ‘flagship project’ to bolster ties between Beijing and Islamabad.

The CPEC is the only corridor that links China to one single country – Pakistan, comprising an important trade route to China, particularly because of the country’s location between China and its energy suppliers in Africa and the Middle East, enforcing China’s huge energy appetite.

Pakistan may have taken more than what it was expecting when it took China’s loans. The country’s Prime Minister is fighting to keep the economy afloat and some are worried that Pakistan’s debt to China may ultimately hurt those efforts. The total value of CPEC projects is currently estimated at $62 billion.

The Belt and Road Initiative is President’s Xi’s most ambitious foreign and economic policy initiative. Much of the recent discussion has concerned the geopolitical aspects of the initiative. There is little doubt that the overarching objective of the project is to help China’s neighbouring countries become more closely tied to Beijing. However, there are many concrete and economic objectives behind BRI that should not be obscured by a focus on strategy.

Additionally, the lack of political trust between China and some BRI countries, as well as instability and security threats in others, are considered obstacles which have to be taken deeply into account when designing an action plan.

Finally, despite ad hoc approaches to the treatment of debt problems, there are some signs that Chinese officials are moving toward greater policy coherence and discipline when it comes to avoiding unsustainable debt.

The last of a generation – Alexandre Soares dos Santos, Mr. Pingo Doce

Alexandre Soares dos Santos, the man behind Jerónimo Martins’ empire and the main sponsor of the foundations created in his grandfather’s honour, the Francisco Manuel dos Santos Foundation (FFMS). One of the richest men in Portugal, he is accredited for changing the business environment in his family’s company, as well as the rest of Portugal.

“I am unpredictable”


Early days

Alexandre Soares dos Santos was born to a family of entrepreneurs from Oporto, at the same time as his father was taking over the helm of his father-in-law’s business. Mr. Soares dos Santos interchanged his studies between Lisbon and Oporto, eventually going on to study Law, following his father’s wishes. However, to his father’s disappointment, Alexandre Soares dos Santos soon dropped out, which led their relationship to quickly sour.

As a result, Mr. Soares dos Santos joined Unilever in Germany, the consumer goods’ giant, where he’d go on to build a career for himself. At the time that he was in charge of the marketing department in Brazil, Alexandre Soares dos Santo’s father passed away, forcing him to move back to Portugal in order to take over the firm’s leadership.


Jerónimo Martins

His beginning at JM:

When thinking about the Portuguese retailer Jerónimo Martins, Alexandre Soares dos Santos should be a name that immediately pops up in our mind, being an inevitable figure in the retail giant. His ties with the company go back to way before he took charge. In 1935, his family decided to move to Lisbon, when Alexandre ́s father was offered a job to work with his father-in-law in a relatively unknown company based in the Portuguese capital: Jerónimo Martins.

Jerónimo Martins is currently the biggest food retailer in Portugal and the 56th largest retailer in the world, according to a study conducted by Deloitte, “Global Powers of Retailing”, in 2018. Although the company ́s foundation goes back to 1792, its most glorious and prosperous times occurred during the time Alexandre Soares dos Santos was the CEO of the retailer.

Deloitte’s Global Powers of Retailing, 2018Deloitte’s Global Powers of Retailing, 2018

Distribution is the answer

The revolution began as soon as Alexandre started administering the firm. In his earliest days, he started a new brand “FIMA”, bought the factories of the ice-cream company “Olá” (internationally known as Algida) and signed agreements with Unilever. This last measure is particularly relevant, as it marked the entry of the Jerónimo Martins group in the distribution market, which would later lead to the opening of the supermarket chain “Pingo Doce” – the group’s most valuable brand in Portugal. This was just the beginning of one of the most successful stories in Portuguese corporate history.

In more recent years, the group has consolidated in its main markets, with special emphasis on Poland, verifying increases in revenues from 13 billion euros in 2013 to close to 18 billion in 2017. Jerónimo Martins’ outstanding performance is not only shown by sales figures, but also by distancing itself from its closest competitor, Sonae, through a greater growth performance.

Jerónimo Martins and Sonae’s revenues between 20013 and 2017Jerónimo Martins and Sonae’s revenues between 2013 and 2017

The Brazilian Setback

Although today Jerónimo Martins is a synonym of success, that has not always been the case. Back at the turn of the millennium, the company faced serious financial difficulties following the expansion into Brazil and Poland. The company lacked financial resources to withstand investing in these two growing economies, leading to debt accumulation, eventually forcing the sale of the Brazilian assets.

Despite being mostly deemed as a bad bet, Mr. Soares dos Santos took personal responsibility, blaming his own arrogance for the company’s failure in Brazil, as well as the lack of market knowledge, planning and overconfidence. He believed that the lesson learnt was a major turning point for the firm, which defined the success in Poland.

“I don’t care about the past. I only care about the day of tomorrow.”

Vision for Portugal

Alexandre Soares dos Santos was long known for his strong criticism of the political landscape and personalities in Portugal. He believed the current economic and banking systems in Portugal to be faulty, in part due to political pressure and widespread corruption. In addition, he defended that the Government creates excessive constraints to investment and job creation through a bureaucratic and centralized decision-making process, which results in little to no prosperity and growth whatsoever.

Mr. Soares dos Santos’ views of the current environment in Portugal were the result of a lifetime of investing, reflecting his several experiences abroad in countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and Poland. Nevertheless, he’d always maintain a distance from politics so as not to hamper his businesses.

I argue that the businessman does not have to get into politics. There is a conflict between being in the government and being in a business.  We obey to one goal: to defend the interests of the company and those who work there. Once a politician, a respectful guy, told me: ‘A politician’s goals are the next elections. Yours, not’”

Legacy – Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos

Besides his impact in business, Alexandre Soares dos Santos played a big role in some of the most relevant studies regarding the Portuguese reality in recent years, through the foundation he and his family created back in 2009: “Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos”. This foundation was created with the main goal of “Studying the great national problems and making them understandable for all, while stimulating open discussions regarding those topics”, as said by Mr. Soares dos Santos when presenting it. FFMS is also responsible for creating the popular statistical platform Pordata.

The database Pordata is one of the most successful projects of the FMS Foundation. It was started in 2010 as the “Database of Contemporary Portugal” and the project embodies one of the priorities of the Foundation: the collection, systematization, and dissemination of data on multiple areas of society. Pordata has a significant relevance at an economic level, as its ties with the Portuguese National Statistics Institute (INE) mean the database is one of the biggest sources of reliable economic information, not only at a national level, but regarding all of Europe.

All of this information about the Portuguese and European economic environment provide an unbiased and trustworthy analysis, which is fundamental to look into existent structural issues present in each country.

“Soares dos Santos had a great social sense, and he was sometimes frustrated that this sense was not perceived from outside.”Seixas da Costa.

Final thoughts

Mr. Soares dos Santos was the last of a generation of industrialists, having transformed a small company into one of the most important conglomerates in the Portuguese economy, and its biggest employer. Moreover, his views of the economic and political environment led him to create a foundation which is key to understanding how Portugal can develop itself.

Mr. Soares dos Santos is seen as an example for Portuguese people, but most importantly an inspiration to the next generation of entrepreneurs who wish to make a difference.

Sources: Observador, Jornal Económico, Jornal de Negócios

Nice Dress in the Closet, Big Weight in the Shoulders

Welcome to the world of fast fashion

Dressing up fashionably is becoming an increasingly mindless task. Shop windows change every two weeks with new collections and t-shirts may cost as low as 5$. Amazing, right? You are able to be on trend without ruining your budget. Besides, according to some well known economists such as John Maynerd Keynes, you are contributing to the growth of your economy the more you consume.

Fast fashion retailers introduce new products multiple times a week, making us feel that the clothes we own are outdated or have a poor design. Most times, this is not true.

When we think of mass production which results in low quality products, labour exploitation, environmental disregard and lack of security at work, the beautiful world of fast fashion becomes a little bit less pretty.

It’s undeniable that a consumerist world may bring some economical and even social benefits for a tiny part of the population. However, in this article, we invite you to look to the other side of the coin – the one we tend to ignore, the one which doesn’t directly affect us.


Mass production in the fast fashion industry


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“No, it is not our choice. We must work overtime. If not, the gate is open for us to quit our job.”  

According to the world resources institute, the average consumer is buying 60% more clothes now than in 2000, which explains why the fast fashion industry has grown so much. According to the Ellen McArthur Foundation, clothing production  has approximately doubled in the last 15 years, driven by a growing middle-class population across the globe. This industry is expected to continue growing due to the foreseen 400% increase in world GDP by 2050.

The fashion industry represents 4% of the global market share (406 billion dollars), having huge implications on both the economic growth and social welfare in several countries.

Since trade law changes in the 1970’s, the supply chain has been spreading out geographically to sub-developed economies, as firms wanted to keep increasing their production while reducing average costs.

To achieve economies of scale, fast fashion industries chose to produce in countries where there were low wages and poor labour regulation.

Because of that, these countries have increased their GDP. In Bangladesh as well as in India, GDP growth was exponential, growing from 25 billions of dollars in 1995 to almost 275 billions of dollars in 2015. However, this increase in GDP was not translated into an increase in welfare. According to the United Nations’ development programme, Bangladesh has an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index  (IHDI) of 0.462 and 67.3% of the total labour force lives under poverty. In India, the reality is almost the same, the IHDI is 0.462 and 42.9% of the total labour force lives with less than 3 dollars per day.

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According to the American Apparel & Footwear Association, during the 1960s roughly 95% of the apparel worn in the U.S. was made domestically. Nowadays, it’s less than 3%. The fashion landscape has changed from being seasonal to new clothes arriving every week, but at what cost? In 2007, labour rights organizations in Bangalore, India, estimated that the bare minimum a garment worker’s family (average size: 4.4 members) needs is around 4364 rupees (€ 80) per month to live. Yet the minimum wage for garment workers in Bangalore starts at 2418 rupees (€ 42) per month, and, according to Labour behind the Label, many workers earn just this amount.

Similarly in Bangladesh, a study for Clean Clothes Campaign by Martin Hearson discovered some workers on the minimum wage of 1662 taka (€ 16.60) and most factories paying an average take-home wage (boosted by considerable amounts of overtime) in the region of 2,500-3,000 taka (€ 25-30). However, at the time that this minimum wage was set, in 2006, living wage1 estimates for a Bangladeshi garment worker’s family were around 4,800 taka (€ 48). Low payment like this often means that garment workers are keen to work overtime to help bring in more money. However, in the majority of workplaces that Clean Clothes Campaign surveyed, a significant proportion of the overtime is unpaid. This is often because employers set impossible daily targets, requiring workers to stay at work until they have met them. Only then they are paid. A tailor in Tirupur told Clean Clothes Campaign “No, it is not our choice. We must work overtime. If not, the gate is open for us to quit our job.”  

In Bangladesh, Garment workers and their families protested on the first anniversary of the Rana Plaza collapse, demanding compensation for the deaths and injuries of thousands of workers.

Besides paying low wages, the factories where these workers spend most of their time have, in general, really poor working conditions, which frequently leads to severe accidents. According to Reuters, between 2005 and 2016 at least 9 deadly accidents happened in Bangladesh, most of them in garment factories which supply global clothing brands.

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The worst accident happened in April 2013 when an eight story building, Rana Plaza, housing 5 garment factories, collapsed due to a structural failure. Besides the failure to meet security standards, according to the head of Bangladesh Fire Service & Civil Defence,  the upper floors had been built without permission. On the day before the collapse, some cracks in the walls of the building had been noticed and the building was evacuated. However, on the following day, workers were ordered to enter the factory despite the complaints about the appearance of cracks in the walls. Bank and stores employees were not there but more than 3000 workers, mostly women and young people, were inside the building when it collapsed, and 1134 of them died.


Affordable does not always mean sustainable

Besides the social harm of mass production, this practice will also generate negative environmental externalities. According to the World Resources Institute, to produce one cotton shirt 2,700 liters of water are needed, the equivalent of what a regular person drinks in two and a half years. On the other hand, the production of a pair of jeans generates as much greenhouse gases as driving a car for more than 80 miles. Washing clothes releases 500,000 tons of microfibers into the ocean every year.

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This way, the fast fashion industry is responsible for 20% of the global water waste and 10% of total gas emissions.

To produce at a lower cost firms use cheaper materials (such as polyester, acrylic or nylon), synthetic fabrics, dangerous dyes and toxic chemicals. Moreover, when consumers wash their clothes they release plastic fibres into the ocean as most of the materials used to produce clothes in the fast fashion industry are made from petroleum. The most widely used input in the fast fashion industry, polyester, is a fine example. More than 70 million barrels of oil are used every year to produce this material and it is responsible for 35% of the microplastics present in the ocean.


“ If we only have one body, why do we need thousands of clothes?”

Slow fashion, which is the deliberate choice of purchasing better quality items, but less often, has risen in opposition to fast fashion. By using high quality resources and production methods, guaranteeing better working conditions and compensation for employees, this alternative is considered environmentally and ethically conscious rather than trend driven.

However, there are other ways beyond slow fashion capable of softening fast fashion environmental consequences, such as:

  • Donating unused clothes to charity institutions or to your family and friends. Do not  throw them in the organic bins as, if they are composed of synthetic, non-biodegradable fibers, they will just pile up in the landfill;

  • Looking for shops which take back used clothes from their own brands or even from other’s;

  • Trying your luck in second hand stores, a sustainable and economically efficient way of getting rid of what you don’t need anymore but which may be useful for someone else.

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If it is true that not all of us are able to afford slow fashion items or they simply don’t satisfy our tastes, it is also true that companies produce according to our “production orders”. That is, if we keep on buying clothes just because they are fashionable or cheap, disregarding the environmental and social  impacts of their production, this situation is never going to change.

As consumers, we have the power to dictate the rules. If we demand corporations to give their employees better working conditions or their production cycle to be more sustainable, they have no other way than to adapt. However, this would require a collective change of behaviour, so that corporations feel forced to satisfy our “new purchasing preferences”.

Besides, this problem could simply be solved with pure rationality. If we only have one body, why do we need thousands of clothes? Does it make any sense?

The first step in the fight against the environmental deterioration and social damages caused by the fast fashion industry is the change in our shopping routines, something reachable by all of us. We need to work together –  there are no jobs on a dead planet. There is no equity without rights to decent work and social protection. Ultimately, there is no peace if we are uncertain about the sustainability of our planet.

It’s time to change.


1 A living wage enables workers and their dependents to meet their needs for nutritious food and clean water, shelter, clothes, education, health care, and transport, as well as allowing for a discretionary income.


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